August 30, 2014

Maxime Moses Alexandre (Alsace / writes in French and German) 1899-1976

Maxime Moses Alexandre (Alsace / writes in French and German)

Maxime Alexandre (upper, left, top row) among the Surrealists

Maxime Moses Alexandre was born Wolfisheim in the Upper Alsace into a liberal and Francophile Jewish family. His family spoke in German, but as did many citizens of this previous French-speaking imperial province, also spoke French and her politically liberal.
    When he was twelve years old, he wrote his first poems in German.
    Shortly before the First World War, his family moved to Lausanne for greater safety. There, he met the noted novelist writer Roman Rolland.   
     On travels to Zurich, he met the precursors of the Dada movement, including Jean Arp. After the War, he returned to Strasburg in the Alsace, he continued his studies and met Louis Aragon, who invited him to Paris.
     In Paris, he decided to write only in French. In the French capital, he met André Breton, Robert Desnos, Benjamin Perét and the group who founded the Surrealist movement. He took part in the Surrealists’ activities from 1923 to 1932, but in a disagreement with the Surrealists pro-communist and socialist positions, broke with Breton, and was excluded from the movement.
    Beginning in 1931 until the year 1939, Alexandre lived a productive life as a poet, prose writer, and dramatist. Among his books of poetry were Le Corsage (1931), Le Mal de Nuit (1935), Sujet à l’amour (1937), and La loi mortelle (1939). His prose works included L’Amour image, Sagessé de la Folie, Memoirs of a Surrealist (1968), and his Journal (1951-1975).
     When war broke out once again, he served in the French army, but received some harassment from his military superiors. In 1940 he was captured by the Germans, but was able to secure his release, finding refuge in the southern part of France with Aragon.
      The trauma of the war and his mother’s death in 1949 created great mental difficulties for the writer, and, under the influence of Paul Claudel began conversion to Catholicism. He was baptized on December 8, 1949, but resisted going further in the process.
      Alexandre began to write in German once more in the 1950s, living on for several more years until 1976. He was buried in Rosheim, France in Alsace.


Mes respects (Parmain: HC, 1931); Le Corsage (Paris: Corti, 1931); Le Mal de Nuit (Paris: Corrêa, 1935); Sujet à l’amour (Paris: Gallimard, 1937); La loi mortelle (Paris: La Sagesse, 1939); Les yeux pour pleurer (Paris: Le Sagittaire, 1945); Durst und Quelle (Amriswil: Bodensee, 1952); La Peau et les Os. Poèmes (Paris: Gallimard, 1956); L’Oiseau de papier (Paris: Rougerie, 1972); Circonstances de la Poésie (Paris: Rougerie, 1976); Portrait de l’auteur (Paris: Rougerie, 1978); Das Meer sang fern von uns. Gedichte (Berlin: Henssel, 1984)

Georgy Chulkov (Russia / USSR) 1879-1939

Georgy Chulkov (Russia / USSR)

Georgy Ivanovich Chulkov was born on February 1, 1879 in Moscow to a family of an impoverished nobleman from the city of Tambov.
     Chulkov studied at Moscow University from 1898-1901, joining a revolutionary student organization. In December 1901 he was arrested and exiled to Amga in the Yakutsky region of Siberia. Upon his amnesty in 1903, he was allowed to settle in Nizhny Novgorod, where he lived for a year before moving to St. Petersburg.

During that year, 1904, he published his first collection of poetry,
Kremnistyj put', followed by numerous others from 1908 to 1924, including Vesnoyu na sewer, Lyudi v tumane, Posramlenye besy, Nashi sputniki, and Stihotvoreniya.
     In St. Petersburg he became the unstated editor of Dmitry Merezhkovsky’s and his wife Zinaida Grippius’ magazine Novy Put’ (New Path). When the magazine suspended publication in 1905 because of the Russian Revolution of that year, Chulkov moved to the journal Voprosy Zhizni (Problems of Life), working with its editors Nikolai Berdyaev, Sergei Bulgakov, and Nikolai Lossky until it closed its doors later that same year.
     In 1906, Chulkov edited Fakely (Torches), an journal of Symbolist writing. There he called for a shift in Symbolist concerns, arguing for it to “abandon Symbolism and Decadence and move forward to “a new mystical experience.” A manifesto, “Mystical Experience” followed, with Symbolist authors breaking into two groups, his supporters such as Alexander Blok and Vyacheslav and his detractors, Valery Bryusov, editor of the leading Symbolist magazine Vesy, and Andrei Bely.
     The poet joined the Russian army at the outbreak of World War I in 1914, and after the Russian Civil War, returned writing.
     Chulkov also published novels, Satana (1914), Serezha Nestroev (1916), and Metel’ (1917), but after the wars found it increasingly difficult to publish poetry and fiction.
   From 1922 on wrote essays and critical books about the Decembrist revolt, Alexander Pushkin, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Don Quixote, and the Romanov dynasty in the nineteenth century.
     Chulkov died in 1939.


Kremnistyj put' (Moscow: V. M. Sablina,1904); Vesnoyu na sewer (1908); Lyudi v tumane (1916); Vchera i segodnya (1916); Posramlenye besy (1921); Mariia Gamil’ton (St. Petersburg: Akvilon, 1922); Nashi sputniki (1922); Stihotvoreniya (Moscow: Zadruga, 1922); Vechernie zori: rasskazy (Moscow: Zemlya i fabrika, 1924); Valtasarovo tsarstvo (Balthazar's kingdom, reprint collection) (Moscow: Respublika, 1998)

For a poem by Chulkov, go here:


Mystical Anarchism (Russia)
Mystical Anarchism was a tendency among certain members of the Russian Symbolist Movement to abandon the symbolist associations in their poetry and the decadence of the poetry and their lives in order to move toward a “new mystical experience.”

Advocated particularly by Georgy Chulkov, editor of Fakely (Torches), it was supported by
Vyacheslav Ivanov, as well as Alexander Blok. Writers Valery Bruyusov and Andrei Bely were adamantly opposed to the development, which Chulkov first advocated in 1906 and followed with a manifesto, “Mystical Anarchism” later that year, O misticheskom anarkhizme, 1906, . English translation as On Mystical Anarchism in Russian Titles for the Specialist no. 16, Letchworth, Prideaux P., 1971.
     In her book, New Myth, New World: From Nietzsche to Stalinism, critical Bernice Glatzer Rosenthal has summarized its concepts as “a mish-mash of Nietzsche, Herzen, Bakunin, Merezhkovsky (whose novels were highly influenced by Nietzsche), Ibsen, Byron, utopian socialism, Tolstoy’s Christian anarchism, and Fyodor Dostoevsky’s rejection of necessity.”
     The controversy and the arguments between various members of the Symbolist Group continued until 1908.

Valery Bryusov (Russia / USSR) 1873-1924

Valery Bryusov (Russia / USSR)

Valery Bryusov was born on December 13, 1873 (December 1, on the old Julian calendar) in Moscow, the son of a merchant. Growing up, his parents did little to educate the child, with Bryusov, nonetheless, reading “everything that fell into his hands,” including the works of Darwin and Jules Verne.
     He attended two Moscow high schools in 1885 and 1893.

While still a student at Moscow State University, the young poet translated the works of various French symbolists, including Paul Verlaine, Maurice Materlinck, and Stéphane Mallarmé into Russian. He also translated works by the American Edgar Allan Poem, soon after publishing some of his own poems, influenced by the Decadent and Symbolist movements of Europe.
   Although Russia had theoretically embraced Symbolism at the time, there were few actual practitioners of what would soon become the Russian Symbolist movement. Adopting several pen names, Bryusov published three volumes of his own verse as Russian Symbolists: An Anthology in 1894-95, attracting several younger poets to the then-non-existent movement.
     Over the following years he published two new volumes, Chefs d’oeuvre (1895) and Me eum esse (1897).
    In 1900, he published Tertia Vigilia, which established him as the central Russian symbolist. He published another major collection, Urbi et Orbi (The City and the World) in 1903.
    In 1904 he became the editor of the major literary magazine, Vesy (The Scales), which helped to further his literary ambitions. His poems were celebrated for their sophisticated uses of forms, including the acrostic and carmen figuratum (a pre-concretist form in which the shape of the poem paralleled its subject). He also wrote a major study of Armenian poetry.
     Among the central Russian Symbolist poets, known as exponents of the Silver Age, were Konstantin Balmont, Aleksandr Blok, Vyacheslav Ivanov, Andrei Bely, and Dimitry Merezhkovsky.      By 1910, however, to some contemporary Russian figures his poetry began to seem strained, and his reputation declined and he opposed the efforts of Georgy Chulkov and Vyacheslav Ivanov to more Symbolism in the direction of Mystical Anarchism, which attempted to abandon the pure symbolist and decadent roots to embrace the social-political and spiritual experiments of everyone from Nietzsche, Ibsen, and Byron to Tolstoy’s Christian anarchism.
     Several of his fellow Symbolists also escaped from Russia after the 1917 Russian Revolution, while Bryusov remained there, supporting the Bolshevik government until his death in 1924.
     Increasingly, Bryusov turned to prose, writing his major work, The Fiery Angel (later adapted by composer Sergei Prokofiev as an opera) in 1908.
     Bryusov also continued his work as a translator, translating the works of Belgian poet Emile Verhaeren into Russian and continuing with Verlaine’s poetry. He also published works by Victor Hugo, Jean Racine, Oscar Wilde, Johann Goethe and Virgil’s Aeneid.  His collection of stories, The Republic of the Southern Cross, was published in English in 1918 and 1919.        
     From 1910 to 1912, he became the literary editor to the popular Russian magazine Russkaya Mysl (Russian Thought), serving as its war correspondent during World War I.


Russian Symbolists (1894); Chefs d’oeuvre (Moscow: E. Lisserna I Iu. Romana, 1896); Me eum esse (Moscow: A. I. Mamontova, 1897); Tertia Vigilia (1900); Urbi et Orbi (1903); Stephanos (1905); Neizdannye stikhi, 1914-1924 (Moscow: Gos, izd-vo, 1928); Izbrannoe: stikhotvoreniia, liricheskie poemy (ed. By N. A. Trifonov) (Moscow: Moskovskii rabochii, 1983 ©1979)

For another biography and a selection of three poems by Bryusov, go here:

For a larger selection of poems, click here:

Nakahara Chūya (Japan) 1907-1937

Nakahara Chūya (Japan)
Born on April 29, 1907 in Yamaguchi Prefecture, in what is now part of the city of Yamaguchi. His father, Nakahara Kansuke, was a highly touted and medaled army doctor. In his early years, Chūya’s father was posted to Hiroshima and Kanazawa, before returning to Yamaguchi in 1914.
     In 1915 Chūya’s younger brother died, which led the boy’s turning to poetry to relieve his suffering. He sent his first three poems to a women’s magazine and to a local newspaper in 1920, while still attending elementary school.

In 1923, Chūya shifted to the Ritsumeikan Middle School in Kyoto. And a year later he began living with the actress Yasuko Hasegawa, a relationships which would end in 1925 when she left him for the literary critic and novelist Kobayashi Hideo.
     Early in his writing career, Nakahara preferred the traditional tanka format, but has he reached his teenage years, he moved quickly into writing free verse, particular that as advocated by the Japanese Dadaist poets Takahashi Shhinkichi and Tominaga Tarō    
     Moving to Tokyo, the young poet met writers Kawakami Tetsutaro and Ooka Shohei, with whom he began publishing a literary journal, Hakuchigun (Idiots). Kobayashi introduced the young author to the French symbolist poets, Arthur Rimbaud and Paul Verlaine, whose poems Nakahara translated into Japanese. Beyond the poetic influence, Rimbaud, in particular, influenced the young man’s lifestyle, as he came to be described as a “bohemian.”
     Still employing the traditional counts of five and seven, used in Japanese haiku and tanka, in his poetry, Nakahara nonetheless often used these forms with variations to obtain rhythmical and musical effects. Several of his poems were used as lyrics for songs, including compositions by the composer Saburō Moroi, whom he met in 1927.
     Meanwhile most the major publishers continued to reject his poetic experiments, while the poet found audiences in smaller literary magazines such as Yamamayu (edited by Nakahara and Kobayshi); indeed, Kobayashi and Nakahara remained close friends all of the younger poet’s life.
     In 1931, Nakahara was admitted to the Tokyo Foreign Language College in Kanda to study French. He remained there until 1933, when he married, his son being born a year later. The death of his son in November 1936 resulted in a nervous breakdown for the poet, from which he suffered for the rest of his life. Many of his poems served as remembrances of his beloved son.
     The poet was again hospitalized in January of 1937, and was released the next month, when he moved to Kamakura, leaving several of his works behind with Kobayashi, as he planned to return to his hometown of Yamaguchi. Soon after, however, he died of cerebral meningitis on October 22nd of that year. He was buried in Yamaguchi.
     Only one of his poetry collections, Yago no Uta (Goat Songs) appeared during his lifetime, in a small, 200-edition he himself financed. Just before his death, he edited a second collection, Arishi Hi no Uta (Songs of the Old Days). Kobayashi saw to the publication of that later work. Ooka Shohei collected and edited the Complete Works, containing the poets, uncollected poems, his journals, and selected correspondence.
     Although at the time of his death, Nakahara was not considered a mainstream poet, his work has continued to exert a major influence on Japanese literature in the years since his death. He is now regularly taught in studied in Japanese classrooms.
     In 1966 the city of Yamaguchi (with the support of Seidosha and Kadokawa Shoten publishers) established the Nakahara Chūya Prize, presented annually to an outstanding collection of poetry with shinsen na kankaku (fresh sensibility). The winner receives not only a cash award for several years, but the works, originally, were translated into English—although the latter aspect has been discontinued.


Yago no Uta (1934) / (ed. By Ōta Seiichi (Tokyo: Hatsubaimoto Seiusha, 1996); Arishi hi no uta (1938); Yago no uta; Arishi hi no uta (Tokyo: Sōgensha, Shōwa, 1951)


Depilautumn: The Poetry of Nakahara Chūya (Toronto: University of Tornoto/Your University Joint Centre on Modern East Asia, 1981); The Poems of Nakahara Chūya (trans. by Paul Mackintosh and Maki Sugiyma) (Leominster, Herfordshire, England: Gracewing, 1993); Poems of the Goat (bilingual, trans. by Ry Beville) (Woodstock, Georgia: American Book Company, 2005); Poems of Days Past (bilingual, trans by Ry Beville) (Woodstock, Georgia: American Book Company, 2005)

For “A Suite of Translations from Nakahara Chuya, with a Concluding Poem in Tribute” by

Jerome Rothenberg and Yasuhiro Yotsumato, click here:

August 27, 2014

"An Outsider Poet of the No, Carlos Oquendo de Amat" | essay by David-Baptiste Chirot [link]

For an Essay "An Outsider Poet of the No, Carlos Oquendo de Amat" by David-Baptiste Chirot, go here:

Carlos Oquendo de Amat (Peru) 1905-1936

Carlos Oquendo de Amat [Peru]

The vanguard poet Carlos Oquendo de Amat was born in Puno, a highland provincial capital near Lake Titicaca, in Peru on April 17, 1905.
     The son of a Sorbonne-educated father who was a progressive newspaper publisher, the young poet grew up among of the elite of his community. Upon the death of his father in 1918, the teenager moved with his moved with his mother from that privileged world to a position of poverty in Lima. The family often suffered daily without food as he was growing up. Acquaintances record that Carlos often would skip one meal a day just have enough to attend the cinema.

During this period Lima was in the process of an often turbulent growth and shift of its working and professional families. Many of the major poets of the period had shifted their allegiances to various European vanguard writers in an attempt to express what they saw as the new modernism, a fact not lost on the precocious Oquendo de Amat.
     Written between the period of 1923 to 1925, when the poet was at the age of 18-20, his only book, 5 Metros de Poemas (Five Meters of Poems), bears the stamp of European modernism such as Apollinaire’s work, Futurism, the Creationist writings of Chilean poet Vicente Huidobro, and preceded later work of the Concrete poets.
     The accordion-folded book was published in a small edition in December 1927.
    Personally, the poet suffered many of the social and political problems of the day. After being arrested during several periods of dissent, he embraced Marxism, renouncing poetry.
   During a period of imprisonment, he contracted tuberculosis. When released from prison, he was deported to Panama, managing to reach Republican Spain just before his death in Guadarrama at 32 in 1936.
   His groundbreaking book has been published in two Spanish-language editions, and was first published in English by Turkey Press, translated by David Guss, appeared in 1986. More recently, Ugly Duckling Presse in Brooklyn, published a bilingual edition, translated into English by Joshua Beckman and Alejandro de Acosta, in 2010.


5 Metros de Poemas (Lima, Peru: Editorial Minerva, 1927 / Madrid: Ediiciones El Taller del Libro, 2004)


Five Meters of Poems (trans. by David M. Guss) (Isla Vista, California: Turkey Press, 1986); 5 Meters of Poems (trans. by Joshua Beckman and Alejandro de Acosta) (Brooklyn, New York: Ugly Duckling Presse, 2010)   

For a Spanish language PDF edition of 5 Metros de Poemas, click here:

Anthony Phelps (Haiti) 1928

Anthony Phelps (Haiti)

 Anthony Phelps was born on August 25, 1928 in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. He studied humanities as a young man at the Collège Saint-Louis-de-Gonzague and chemistry at Seton Hall University in New Jersey (1950-1953). Later, he studied ceramics at Montréal’s École des Beaux-Arts.
     Returning to Haiti, Phelps became the director of cultural programming at Radio-Cacique, producing weekly programs of poetry and theater. In the early 1960s, he founded the journal Semences and directed a theater troup, Prisme.

Phelps was also involved with the establishment of the poets known as Haiti littéraire, which included poets Davertige, Serge Legagneur, Roland Morisseau, René Philoctète, and Auguste Thénor.
     During this same period, Phelps published three volumes of poetry, Éte (1960), Présence (1961), and Éclats de silence (1962).    
     In 1964 Phelps immigrated to Quebec, working first as a cameraman with Productions Ville-Marie and acting at Le Théâtre de l’Estoc, before joining Radio-Canada in Montreal, where he spent many year before retiring to devote himself entirely to his writing.
      The poet, however, also was talented as well in other genres, publishing two volumes of short stories, Mon que voice, suivi de Les dits du feu-aux-cailloux (1968) and Et moi je suis une île (1973), novels, Moins l’infini, Roman haïtien (1973), Mémoire en colin-maillard (1976), essays and dramas.
      Since the 1960s he has continued to produce a great number of other volumes of poetry. He was won the Boursier of the Arts Council of Canada several times, and has twice been awarded the Poetry Prize of Casa de las Americas, Cuba. In 2012 he refused an award from Haiti since he had been forced into exile from the still unprosecuted Jean Claude Duvalier regime.
      In 2014 Phelps won the International Poetry Prize Gatien Lapinte-Jaime Sabines.
      Phelps work has been translated into several languages.

Été (Port-au-Prince: Impr. N. A. Théodore [Collection “Samba”], 1960); Présence (Port-au-Prince: Haïti-Littéraire, 1961); Éclats de silence (Port-au-Prince: Art Graphique Presse [Collection Haïti-Littéraire], 1961);  Points cardinaux (Montréal: Rinehart et Winston, 1966); Motifs pour le temps saisonnier (Paris: P. J. Osward, 1976); La Bélière caraïbe (Havana, Cuba: Casa des las Américas, 1980/Montréal: Nouvelle Optique, 1980); Même le solei lest nu (Montéal: Nouvelle Optique, 1983); Orchidée nègre (Montréal: Triptyque, 1987); Les doubles quatrains mauves (Port-au-Prince: Éditions Mémoire, 1995); Immobile Voyageuse de Picas et autres silences (Montéal: CIDIHCA, 2000); Femme Améique (Trois-Rivières, Canada: Écrits des Forges/Marseille: Autres Temps, 2004); Une phrase lented de violoncelle (Montréal: Éditions du Noroît, 2005); Une plague intemporelle (Montréal: Éditions du Noroît, 2011)

For a poem, “When Writing Becomes Smoke,” go here:

Davertige [Villard Denis] (Haiti) 1940-2004

Davertige [Davertige Villard Denis] (Haiti)

Born in Port-au-Prince, Haiti on December 2, 1940 the poet and artist Davertige (born Davertige Villard Denis) grew up on his parent's plantation, part of the area of the city that is called Laforesterie near downtown Port-au-Prince. His mother, Jeanne Fequiere, originally from Cavaillon, convinces her son that they were of born of bourgeoisie origins, emotions that continued into his adulthood when he recalls having lived as a child in a castle.

Early in his youth, Davertige learned French through the lessons of an elderly Guadeloupian woman, affectionately known as Grandma Alice, who lived with his family. 
     At five, the young boy fell from an exterior staircase of the family home, and was henceforward described by his family as a child of “delicate health.” A year later, he began at a private elementary school, Colbert Bonhomme.
     At nine the child began to take interest in drawing and other visual arts, and was encouraged by his family, as long as these interests did not interfere with his studies. Unable to play with his classmates, Davertige read French literary texts from the Middle Ages through the French Revolution, familiarizing himself with the works of Villon, Du Bellay, and other major authors.
     At twelve, although attending secondary school at Simon Bolivar, the young boy enrolled in the National Center of Ceramic Education, where he worked with painter and ceramist Tiga, gradually growing aware of his family myths. 
      In 1954 Davertige began to frequent the Foyer of Visual Arts, working in an apprenticeship, under Dieudonne Cedor, and studying the book The Life of Van Gough he discovered in the Foyer’s library.
     By age 17 Davertige began to write his first poems and, joining the Communist party, he actively participated in the student struggle. In 1958 he showed his first art works at the National Society of Dramatic Art, presenting the painting, “Christ negre.”
    In 1959 he published his first poems under the pseudonym of Davertige, while retaining his name Villard Denis for his art. During this period he also met poet Roland Morisseau, the two exchanging poems, and, soon after, he became friends with Rene Philoctète, following a meeting of the literary group Samba. With poets Serge Legagneur, Anthony Phelps, and August Thénor, Davertige, Morrisseau and Philoctète, the poets became associated with a new movement titled Literary Haiti.
     A year later Davertige bought the library of painter Jacques Gabriel, a collection of books that once belonged to the intellectual painter Roland Dorcely, which included books by Maurice Nadeau, Michel Leiris, and Magloire Saint-Aude, titles that would further influence the Literary Haiti group.
     After the arrest of his student friend Jacques Duvieulla, Davertige took refuge at the home of a washerwoman, a friend of his mentor Cedor, in the Port-au-Prince suburbs. It was there that he composed his first collection of poems, Idem, from September 1960 to February 1961. The book was published in Haiti in 1962 by L’Imprimerie Theodor, with a preface by Serge Legagneur in the Literary Haiti collection. In order to pay for its publication, the poet sold his jeep, and destroyed a large part of the work to bring down the number of its pages.
     During the same years, Davertige lived off the painter part of his being, Villard Denis, working with the gallerist Issa El Saleh. And in the year of his poetry publication, he sold his paintings books he selected from the bookstore named Select and frequented another bookstore, Le Pleiade. 
      In 1962, the literary critic Maurice Lub, vacationing in Paris, shared the works of poets associated with Literary Haiti, handing a copy of Idem to French poet Alain Bosquet. Bosquet proclaimed the genius of the author the following year in Le Monde. The same year, Soviet critic Eugénie Galpérina, cited the Haiti Literary poets, by omitted Davertige’s name. In order to rectify the omission, René Philoctète wrote praised Idem in an article in revue Semences
     Perceiving that he needed what he described as “oxygen,” Davertige left Haiti to travel to New York for a year, working in the city at Art d’Haiti. The same year, through a mutual friend, the poet met Alain Bosquet at Carnegie Hall, developing a friendship which led the French poet to writer another essay on Idem for the magazine Combat and to write a preface for the book which was re-released in France. 
     In October 1965, Davertige moved to Paris, living in a small hotel in the Latin Quarter, spending a great deal of time with poets Bosquet, Pierre Emmanuel, and André Laude. In 1967 the poet settled with Chantal, a woman he had met through his politically leftist activities. The couple had a daughter, Eleonore in 1968. 
     Although Davertige continued to meet regularly with French and fellow-Haitian writers, from Gary King to Gerard Aubourg, Danien Arty, and Jean-Claude O’Garo, the poet soon begins to fall into a depression, feeling that he has lost everything in Europe. 
     During a trip to China in 1968, the poet began to write a novel of more than 2000 hand-written pages, which he later burned.
     Meeting editor of the Montreal publishing house, Nouvell Opitque, Herard Jadotte, Davertige was invited to by Jadotte to come live in that Canadian city. Breaking up with Chantal, Davertige decided to take the editor up on his offer. From 1976-2002, he withdrew from both his personas, “The darkness: life realizes itself. No more Villard Denis. Davertige is in the past. His representative Villard Denis is dead,” he summarizes.
      It was not until 1987 that he returned to Haiti, living for six months with Philoctète, while he returned to painting, and showing in Port-au-Prince during the Meeting of Latin-American ministers.
     In 2003, rewriting most the poems from Idem, he redesigned and reprinted the book in Montreal. Davertige died in Montreal on July 25, 2004.


Idem (Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Impr. Théodore, 1962 / Montréal: Nouvelle Optique, 1983, 2003)

Omabarigore the town I created for you
Taking the sea in my arms
And the landscape around my head
All the plants are sated and hold their springtime
On their stems that the winds stifle
In the middle of forests that resonate from our senses
Awakened trees that know our secrets
All the doors open with the force of your dreams
Each musician has your senses for an instrument
And the night a necklace around the dance
For we make fast thunderstorms
To the arms of refuse
The sorrow falls like the walls of Jericho
The doors open only with the force of your love
Omabarigore where rings
All the clocks of love and life
The map shines like this face that I love
Two mirrors collect the tears of the past
And the people of dawn besiege our sight