GRUPO DOS CINCO (Brazil)
Beginninng in the early 1920’s Brazilian writer, musicologist, folklorist, and photographer Mário de Andrade became close friends with several other São Paulo poets and artists, a group which would come to be known as the Grupo dos Cinco (the Group of Five), including Andrade, the unrelated poet Oswald de Andrade, Menotti del Picchia, and artists Tarsila do Amaral and Anita Malfatti.
Malfatti had introduced Brazil to expressionism, and the others were well versed in contemporary European poetry and art.
The group continued to work together through most of the 1920s until Mário had a falling-out with the poet Oswald de Andrade, purportedly over a pseudonymous accusation of the former being “effeminate,” a code-word, clearly, for Mário’s possible homosexuality. But as the Grupo dos Cinco broke up, other groupings occurred around these figures, helping to extend Brazilian modernism in different directions.
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